Estos días hemos reflexionado y girado en torno a una idea que nos ha llamado la atención en este comienzo de año. La hemos escuchado de dos arquitectos diferentes y con diferentes enunciados: por una parte, en el BIM Summit 2015 de Barcelona, en la presentación del Máster BIM de Zigurat, Gustavo Ferreiro hablaba de la organización colaborativa de proyecto, de los niveles de competencia y los perfiles BIM, y dijo: “Son personas que usan tecnologías”. Por otra, Felipe Choclán y Leticia Sauco, en su intervención en la Maestría de Administración de la Construcción (Máster en Dirección Integrada  en Proyectos de Construcción) de la QLU-Universidad de Louisville, sede de Panamá, expresaron de forma más taxativa: “BIM es un 10% tecnología y un 90% sociología”.

Intentamos comprender mejor, desde la experiencia de estos profesionales, las dificultades que puede suponer la implantación de una novedad tecnológica en nuestro entorno. Tras varios años divulgando la misma, aún podemos encontrar oposición de personas, -en diversos niveles y en algunas organizaciones- que hacen complicado llevar el mensaje a los empresarios y equipos directivos con capacidad de decisión, de que esta tecnología está madura y es relativamente fácil de implementar, y de que la mayor dificultad es la falta de una cultura de trabajo colaborativo.

Entender la dinámica de estos nuevos sistemas y lo que involucran en cuanto a I+D ( en su amplio espectro y no como mero marketing sin ningún arraigo real a los procedimientos efectivos de implantación) sigue siendo el mayor reto.

Implantar BIM con éxito en una organización involucra poner en marcha la optimización de sus procesos y obtener, en un plazo razonable, resultados mensurables de retorno de inversión. 

Innovar, en el caso específico de la metodología de trabajo en BIM, conlleva un componente “sociológico” determinante, porque propone, permite, y por tanto requiere una colaboración entre los implicados que hasta ahora no había sido posible. A cambio, nos garantiza beneficios, como una continuidad de los procesos sin pérdida de información, o una entrega integrada de proyecto (IPD), a lo largo de todo su ciclo de vida.

Picture

EASTMAN, C. 2011©
La pérdida de datos en el paso de cada fase sucesiva (planificación, diseño, construcción, puesta en marcha, operación y renovación)  ha marcado a la baja la productividad en la industria de la construcción. Su explicación gráfica es conocida, y nos ha recordado este otro esquema que circula por las redes, que muestra lo acertado de los enunciados de los BIM Managers más avanzados.

La falta de “sociología”, el no convencer al equipo de personas implicadas, no involucrarles en los nuevos procedimientos, puede llevar al fracaso de cualquier implantación BIM, con el resultado de una “vuelta atrás”, al territorio conocido del CAD, y a una pérdida de tiempo, recursos y credibilidad. 
 


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